Methods of production of non-ferrous metals are very diverse. Many metals get pyrometallurgical way with the election a reducing or oxidizing melting. A number of metals get hydrometallurgical method to transfer them to soluble compounds and subsequent leaching. For some metals used metallothermic processes using as reducing agents produced metals other the metals with large affinity to oxygen. In this Chapter the methods of obtaining non-ferrous metals.For the production of copper used copper ore, and waste media its alloys. The ore contains 1 to 6% copper. Ore containing less than 0.5% of copper, not processed, as in the prior art extract from her copper is unprofitable.
Gangue ores consist of pyrite (FeS2), quartz (SiO2), various compounds containing Al2O3, MgO, CaO, and of iron oxides.
The ore sometimes contains significant amounts of other metals (zinc, gold, silver, and others).
There are two methods of obtaining copper from ore:
Hydrometallurgical not found its wide application due to the inability to extract simultaneously with the copper precious metals.
Pyrometallurgical method suitable for the processing of ore and include the following (figure 43):
Ore preparation is to conduct enrichment and roasting. The enrichment of copper ores is carried out by flotation. In the result is copper concentrate containing 35% copper and 50% sulfur. Concentrates are usually roasted in furnaces fluidized bed to reduce the sulfur content to optimum values. When roasting oxidizes sulfur when the temperature of 750 – 800 °C, part of the sulphur is removed with the gases. The result is a product, called calcine.
|Metal||Density, kg/m3||Melting point, °C||UD. resistance, Ohm-mm2/m|
|Tungsten||18 000-19 300||3370-3400||0,053—0,055|
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